The term Ethnic Japanese refers to people of Japanese descent living outside of Japan. Emigration from Japan was recorded Japanesse Immigration as early as the 12th century, but did not become a mass phenomenon until the Japanes Immigration Meiji Era, when Japanese began to go to the United States and Canada, and later Latin Japanees Immigration America. Descendants of those emigrants still form recognizable communities Japnese Immigration in those countries almost a century later. There Jappanese Immigration was also significant emigration to the territories of the Empire of Japan during the colonial period; however, most such emigrants repatriated to Japan Japanse Immigration after the end of World War II in Asia.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Americas
- 3 Europe
- 4 Asia Japanee Immigration ex-Japan
- 5 Return migration to Apanese Immigration Japan
- 6 References
- 7 See also
The term nikkeijin (日系人?) is used to refer to Japanese Japnaese Immigration people who either emigrated from Japan or are descendants of a Jpanese Immigration person who emigrated from Japan. The usage of this term usually excludes Japanese citizens who are living abroad. In the United States, these groups were historically differentiated by the terms issei (first generation nikkeijin), nisei (second generation nikkeijin), and sansei (third generation nikkeijin). According to the Association of Nikkei and Japanese Abroad, there are about 2.5 million nikkeijin living in their adopted countries. The largest of these foreign communities are in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Paraná. There are also significant cohesive Japanese communities in Peru and in the American state of Hawaiʻi.
People from Japan began migrating to the U.S. and Canada in significant numbers following the political, cultural, and social changes stemming from the 1868 Meiji Restoration. (See Japanese American, Japanese Canadian). Particularly after the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, Japanese immigrants were sought by industrialists to replace the Chinese immigrants. In 1907, the "Gentlemen's Agreement" between the governments of Japan and the U.S. ended immigration of Japanese workers (i.e., men), but permitted the immigration of spouses of Japanese immigrants already in the U.S. The Immigration Act of 1924 banned the immigration of all but a token few Japanese, until the Immigration Act of 1965, there was very little further Japanese immigration. That which occurred was mostly in the form of war brides.
With the restrictions on entering the United States, the level of Japanese immigration to Latin America began to increase. Japanese immigrants (particularly from the Okinawa Prefecture) arrived in small numbers during the early 20th century. Japanese Brazilians are the largest ethnic Japanese community outside Japan (numbering about 1.5 million, compared to about 800,000 in the United States). The first Japanese immigrants (791 people - mostly farmers) came to Brazil in 1908 on the Kasato Maru from the Japanese port of Kobe, moving to Brazil in search of better living conditions. Many of them (along with Chinese immigrants) ended up as laborers on coffee farms. The first Japanese Argentine Nisei (second generation), Seicho Arakaki, was born in 1911. Today there are an estimated 32,000 people of Japanese descent in Argentina according to Association of Nikkei and Japanese Abroad. Japanese Peruvians form another notable ethnic Japanese community, and count among their members former Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori.
Some Japanese communists settled in the Soviet Union; Irina Hakamada, a Russian politician, is the daughter of Mutsuo Hakamada, a member of the Japanese Communist Party. The 2002 Russian census showed 835 people claiming Japanese ethnicity (nationality).
Japanese emigration to the rest of Asia was noted as early as the 12th century; early Japanese-Filipino settlements included those in Lingayen Gulf, Manila, the coasts of Ilocos Norte and in the Visayas. A larger wave came in the 1600s, when red seal ships traded in Southeast Asia, and Japanese Catholics fled from the religious persecution imposed by the shoguns, and settled in the Philippines, among other destinations. Many of them also intermarried with the local Filipina women (including those of pure or mixed Spanish descent), thus forming the new Japanese-Mestizo community. During the American colonial era, the number of Japanese laborers working in plantaions rose so high that in the 1900's, Davao soon became dubbed as a Ko Nippon Koku (Little Japan in Japanese) with a Japanese school, a Shinto temple and a diplomatic mission from Japan. There is even a popular restaurant called "The Japanese Tunnel", which includes an actual tunnel made by the Japanese in time of the war.
There was also a significant level of emigration to the overseas territories of the Empire of Japan during the Japanese colonial period, including Korea, Taiwan, and Karafuto. Unlike emigrants to the Americas, Japanese going to the colonies occupied a higher rather than lower social niche upon their arrival. As a book for prospective migrants frankly said: "In Korea one can carry on an independent enterprise with oneself as master, freely able to employ Koreans at low wages and tell them what to do". However, after World War II, most of these overseas Japanese repatriated to Japan. Only a few remained overseas, often involuntarily, as in the case of Japanese orphans in China or Japanese prisoners of war forced to work in Siberia by the Soviet government.
In recent years, Japanese migration to Australia, largely consisting of females, has been on the rise.. There is also a community of Japanese people in Hong Kong largely consisting of expatriate businessmen.
Return migration to Japan
In the 1980s, with Japan's growing economy facing a shortage of workers willing to do so-called Three 'K' jobs (kitsui (difficult), kitanai (dirty), and kiken (dangerous)), Japan's Ministry of Labor began to grant visas to ethnic Japanese to return to Japan and work in factories. There are approximately 270,000 such people in Japan from Brazil alone. Most are bilingual in Japanese and Portuguese, Spanish, or English. The vast majority are Brazilians, but there is also a large population of Peruvians and smaller populations of Argentines and other Latin Americans.
- ^ (Russian) Владение языками (кроме русского) населением отдельных национальностей по республикам, автономной области и автономным округам Российской Федерации (Microsoft Excel). Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
- ^ Lankov, Andrei. "The Dawn of Modern Korea (360): Settling Down", The Korea Times, 2006-03-23. Retrieved on 2006-12-18.
- ^ Deborah McNamara and James E. Coughlan (1992). "Recent Trends in Japanese Migration to Australia and the Characteristics of Recent Japanese Immigrants Settling in Australia". Faculty of Arts, Education, and Social Sciences, James Cook University. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
- Japanese Americans, people of Japanese descent living in the United States
- Issei Japanese Americans, Japanese Americans who arrived in the United States before the Immigration Act of 1924
- Nisei Japanese Americans, the children of Issei Japanese Americans
- Sansei Japanese Americans, the grandchildren of Issei Japanese Americans
- Japanese Argentines, people of Japanese descent living in Argentina
- Japanese Brazilians, people of Japanese descent living in Brazil
- Japanese Canadians, people of Japanese descent living in Canada
- Japanese Filipinos, people of Japanese descent living in the Philippines
- Japanese Peruvians, people of Japanese descent living in Peru.
- Japanese people in Hong Kong
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