Japanese Engines



Japanese Engines in the news

An Electrifying New Race For Automakers 

CBS News - Jan 12 11:30 AM
Can Detroit leapfrog its Japanese competitors with a gas-electric hybrid that gets 150 m.p.g. and can travel 40 miles on batteries alone? By introducing the Volt concept car, GM is betting they can.
New race for automakers: build a better battery 
The Christian Science Monitor via Yahoo! News - Jan 12 12:00 AM
Can you imagine this scenario: An American automaker leapfrogs its Japanese competitors with a gasoline-electric hybrid that gets 150 miles to the gallon and can travel 40 miles on battery power alone?

2007 Silverado keeps Chevrolet on top of the pickup plateau 
Stoney Creek News - Jan 12 8:21 AM
The 2007 Chevrolet Silverado pickup truck is offered in three cab styles with five suspension packages, three box lengths and eight different engines for hundreds of differing uses.

Japan: Slow and Steady Does It 
BusinessWeek Online via Yahoo! News - Jan 11 5:08 AM
Japan's economic growth should continue at a steady, though unexciting, pace in 2007. Recent Japanese economic data are consistent with the Bank of Japan's (BoJ) semiannual outlook, issued in October, projecting continued moderate expansion. Growth in 2007 is forecast at near the 2% pace of recent years, including the estimate for 2006. This is supported by ongoing momentum in exports and ...

- Japanes Engines

Here is an article on Japanese Engines.

Toyota Corolla
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1966-Present
Predecessor Toyota Publica
Successor Toyota Auris Japanse Engines (hatchback only)
Class Subcompact (1966-1987)
Compact (1988-present)
Body style 2-door sedan (1966-1983)
4-door Japannese Engines sedan (1966-present)
2-door coupé (1966-2000)
2-door hardtop (1975-83)
3-door Japanee Engines liftback (1976-87)
3-door hatchback Apanese Engines (1984-present)
5-door hatchback (1984-present)
Wagon (1966-present)
Van (1968-present)

The Toyota Corolla (トヨタ カローラ Toyota Karōra?) is a subcompact/compact car produced by Toyota of Japan, known Japamese Engines worldwide Japanesee Engines for its reliability, conventional engineering and low fuel consumption. In 1997, the Corolla became the best selling Japnaese Engines nameplate in the world, and 30 million have now been sold since its launch in 1966.[1]

Corollas are currently manufactured in Japan, the United States (Fremont, California), the United Kingdom (Derbyshire and Sunderland), Canada (Cambridge, Ontario), Malaysia, China (Tianjin), Taiwan, Pakistan, South Africa, Brazil, Turkey, Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela and India.

The Corolla's chassis designation code is "E", as described in Toyota's chassis and engine codes.


  • 1 Alternative versions
    • 1.1 Using the Corolla chassis
    • 1.2 Using the Corolla name
  • 2 First Generation — E10 series — October 1966
    • 2.1 Japan (1966-1969)
    • 2.2 USA (1968-1970)
  • 3 Second Generation — E20 series — 1970
    • 3.1 Japan (1970-1978)
    • 3.2 USA (1971-1974)
  • 4 Third generation — E30, E40, E50 series — April 1974
    • 4.1 Japan (1974-1981)
    • 4.2 USA (1975-1979)
  • 5 Fourth generation — E70 series — 1979-1987
  • 6 Fifth generation — E80 series — 1983
    • 6.1 USA (1984-1987)
    • 6.2 Europe (1984-1987)
  • 7 Sixth generation — E90 series — May 1987
    • 7.1 South Africa (1996-2006)
    • 7.2 Japan (1987—1991)
    • 7.3 USA (1988-1992)
    • 7.4 Europe (1988-1992)
    • 7.5 Australia (1988-1994)
  • 8 Seventh generation — E100 series — June 1991
    • 8.1 Japan (1991-1996)
    • 8.2 USA and Canada (1993-1997)
    • 8.3 Europe (1992-1997)
  • 9 Eighth Generation — E110 series — May 1995
    • 9.1 Japan (1995-2000)
    • 9.2 USA (1998-2002)
    • 9.3 Europe and Oceania (1996-2001)
  • 10 Ninth generation — E120 series — August 2000
    • 10.1 Japan (2000-2006)
    • 10.2 Europe (2002-current)
    • 10.3 Southeast Asia (excluding Hong Kong, Japan & India)
    • 10.4 USA (2003-current)
    • 10.5 Rest of the world
  • 11 Tenth Generation — E140 series — October 2006
    • 11.1 Japan
      • 11.1.1 Equipment
    • 11.2 North America
    • 11.3 Australia
    • 11.4 Europe and China
  • 12 Safety
  • 13 See also
  • 14 Sources

Alternative versions

Using the Corolla chassis

A slightly upmarket version is called the Toyota Sprinter, sold in the Japanese home market. It was replaced in 2001 by the Toyota Allex, which was then replaced by the Toyota Blade in 2006. There have also been several models over the years, including the Corolla Ceres (and similar Sprinter Marino) hardtop, Corolla Levin and Sprinter Trueno sports coupés and hatchbacks, and the Corolla FX hatchback, which became the Corolla Runx. The Runx was repalced by the Auris in 2006.

Over the years, there have been rebadged versions of the Corolla, including the 1980s' Holden Nova of Australia, and the Sprinter-based Chevrolet Nova, Geo Prizm then Chevrolet Prizm of the United States. The Corolla liftback (TE72) of Toyota Australia was at one point badged the T-18. The five-door liftback was sold with the Corolla Seca name in Australia and the nameplate survived on successive five-door models. The Daihatsu Charmant was produced with the E30 through E70 series.

The Chevrolet Nova is based on E80 Japanese Sprinter sedan and 5-door liftback. The Geo/Chevrolet Prizm was produced with the E90 through E110 series.

Using the Corolla name

The Toyota Tercel was a front wheel drive spin-off of the rear wheel drive Corolla introduced in 1980, called the Corolla Tercel which later became its own model in 1983.

The Tercel Chassis was used again for the Corolla II hatchback.

First Generation — E10 series — October 1966

First generation
Production 1966-1970
Body style 2 and 4-door sedan, coupé, wagon
Engine 1.1, 1.2 liter
Similar Datsun 1200

Japan (1966-1969)

The Corolla was launched in Japan in October 1966. Eiji Toyoda, chairman of the company, said it worked hard to create popular demand, and disputes that Toyota rode a wave of private car ownership that was taking off in the mid-1960s.

The initial car, the KE1x series was small, with a 90 in (2286 mm) wheelbase, and used a 4-speed manual transmission or 2 speed automatic transmission, with rear wheel drive.

The suspension in front was MacPherson struts supported by a transverse leaf spring beneath the engine cross-member, with leaf springs connected to a solid axle in back.

Japanese engines:

  • 1K — 1.1 L (1077 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 60 hp (56 kW)
  • 3K — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 55 hp (41 kW)

JPN-market chassis:

  • E-10/11 — Sedan, 2-door/4-door
  • E-15 — Hardtop coupé
  • E-16 — Wagon, 2-door

USA (1968-1970)

Toyota has been almost steadfast in facelifting each generation after two years, and replacing it with an all-new model every four years. Exports to the United States began in 1968 at about US$1,700.

American engines:

  • 3K — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 55 hp (41 kW)

US-market chassis:

  • E-11 — Sedan, 2-door/4-door
  • E-15 — Hardtop coupé
  • E-16 — Wagon, 3-door

Second Generation — E20 series — 1970

Second generation
Production 1970-1978
Body style 2 and 4-door sedan, coupé, 3- and 5-door wagon, van
Engine 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 liter
Similar Chevrolet Vega
Datsun B210
Ford Pinto
Honda Civic

The second-generation KE2# / TE2# model, launched 1970, had "coke-bottle" styling. It had a longer 91.9 in (2334 mm) wheelbase. The front suspension design was improved greatly, using a swaybar, however the rear remained relatively the same. The Corolla became the second-best selling car in the world that year. Grades for sedan were Standard, Deluxe, and Hi-Deluxe. The coupé was offered in Deluxe, SL, SR, and Levin as well as Sprinter variants. The Sprinter Trueno was equivalent to the Corolla Levin.

The TE27 Levin is featured in Auto Modellista, a racing video game by Capcom.

Minor changes were made for the 1973 model year with a new grille, turn signal lights, and tail lights, along with similar treatment to the Sprinter.

Japan (1970-1978)

The KE26 wagon and van were still marketed in Japan after the 30-series was introduced.

Japanese engines:

  • T — 1.4 L (1400 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb,
  • 2T — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 75 hp (56 kW)
  • 2T-B — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, twin carb,
  • 2T-G — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 2-valve DOHV, carb, 115 hp (86 kW)
  • 3K-C — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 55 hp (41 kW)

JPN-market chassis:

  • KE20/TE21 — Sedan, 2-door/4-door (Std, DX, Hi-DX)
  • KE25 — Hardtop coupé (DX, SL, SR)
  • KE26/TE26 — Wagon, 3-door
  • KE28/TE28 — Wagon, 3-door
  • TE27 — Coupé (Levin/Trueno)

USA (1971-1974)

The Japan chassis models were all available in USA. A 1.6 L (1588 cc/96 in³) 102 hp (76 kW) engine came in 1971, quite impressive for the time, and a sporty hardtop coupé called the SR5 (also known as the Levin in Japan) was introduced in 1973. In 1974, the SR5 was entered by Car & Driver magazine's team in SCCA competition.

American engines:

  • 2T-C — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 102 hp (76 kW)
  • 3K-C — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 55 hp (41 kW)

US-market chassis: TE21 — Sedan, 2-door/4-door (Std, DX, Hi-DX) TE26 — Wagon, DX TE27 — Hardtop coupé (SR5)

Third generation — E30, E40, E50 series — April 1974

Third generation
Production 1974-1981
Body style 2 and 4-door sedan, hardtop coupé, 3- and 5-door wagon, van
Engine 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 liter
Related Daihatsu Charmant
Similar Chevrolet Monza
Datsun B210
Ford Pinto
Honda Civic

Japan (1974-1981)

The third-generation Toyota Corolla, built from 1974-81 (worldwide versions) (KE3x/KE5x), marked Toyota's greatest growth in the United States in the wake of the fuel crisis. In addition to the Sprinter, there was a redesigned-body version built by Toyota affiliate Daihatsu, called the Daihatsu Charmant. While there were certain fourth-generation models with a longer model life, this generation, when considered as a whole, was the longest-lived one, possibly due to the worldwide recession in the 1970s. A large range of cars were built using this chassis, including Corollas, Sprinters, Daihatsu, and the sporty Levin and Trueno models with the DOHC motor.

The 3K engine were used in certain markets and later the 4K, while most Japanese and American models had the bigger 2T engine. A "Toyoglide" 2/3-speed automatic transmission was added as well as a four-speed and five-speed manual tranmission, driving to the rear wheels. A three-door "liftback" (E50) and sports coupé (E51) was added in 1976. The E40 and E60 series were assigned to the Sprinter variants.

Japanese engines:

  • 2T-G — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 8-valve DOHC, carb, 124 hp (93 kW)
  • 2T-C — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 8-valve OHV, carb, 75 hp (56 kW)
  • 3K-C — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 8-valve OHV, carb, 55 hp (41 kW)

JPN-market chassis:

  • E31 — Sedan, 2-door/4-door
  • E36 — Wagon, 3 or 5-door
  • E38 — Wagon, 3 or 5-door
  • E37 — Hardtop coupé (Levin)
  • E51 — Sports coupé (Levin GT)
  • E55 — Liftback (Levin GT)

USA (1975-1979)

Road & Track was critical of the 1975 Corolla, calling it "large and heavy" and "expensive" compared to the Honda Civic and Datsun B210. They also criticized the "relatively crude rear suspension" and lack of interior space and poor fuel economy when compared to the VW Rabbit. The base model cost US$2,711 in 1975, but one needed to step up to the $2,989 "deluxe" to get features comparable to the contemporary pack.

However emissions became a problem further into the 1970s, and the 4K engine which became popular because of its low fuel consumption. In later versions of the K engine, emissions equipment in the series produced only 60 hp (45 kW), despite an increased capacity of 1290 cc.

The E30 series 2T-C engines outmatched rival Datsun B210's engine output.

American engines:

  • 2T-C — 1.6 L (1588 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 75 hp (56 kW)
  • 3K-C — 1.2 L (1166 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 55 hp (41 kW)

US-market chassis:

  • E-31 — Sedan, 2-door/4-door (Std, DX, E/5)
  • E-35 — wagon, 5-door (Std, DX)
  • E-37 — Hardtop coupé (DX, SR5)
  • E-51 — Sports coupé (Std, SR5)
  • E-55 — Liftback, 3-door (Std, SR5)

Fourth generation — E70 series — 1979-1987

Fourth generation
Production 1979-1983
Body style 2 and 4-door sedan, hardtop coupé, liftback coupé, liftback, 3- and 5-door wagon, highroof wagon, van
Engine 1.3, 1.6, 1.8 liter
Related Daihatsu Charmant
Similar Dodge Colt
Ford Escort
Honda Civic
Mazda GLC
Datsun 210

The fourth-generation model released in 1979 in Japan, was boxy and was the last generation to have the enitire lineup in rear-wheel-drive. Although most of the fourth generation was replaced by 1984, the station wagon and van versions were offered into 1987.

This generation (apart from the wagon) got a new rear coil spring five-link rear end with panhard rod, and the wheelbase was longer at 94.5 in (2400 mm). A new 1.8 L (1770 cc/108 in³) 3T engine was optional to some markets, whilst parts of the world retained the old 4K. The year 1983 introduced the Corolla's first overhead cam engine, the 1.6 L (1587 cc/96 in³) 4A-C. This was the first generation to have power steering. In the USDM market, this was introduced in the 1982 model year. The 1980-81 models had 4 lamps in the front in some markets, all 1982-83 models have 2 - a facelift involving wraparound headlights, remodelled taillights and new bumpers was introduced for 1982.

In 1980, during this model's life, Corolla daily production reached an all-time high, averaging 2,346 units.

American engines:

  • 3T-C — 1.8 L (1770 cc) I4, 2-valve OHV, carb, 75 hp (56 kW)
  • 4A-C — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 8-valve SOHC, carb, 90 hp (67 kW)

US-market chassis:

  • E-71 — Sedan, 2-door/4-door (Std, DX)
  • E-72 — wagon, 5-door (Std, DX)
  • E-72 — Hardtop coupé (DX, SR5)
  • E-72 — Sports coupé (SR5)
  • E-72 — Liftback, 3-door (Std, SR5)

Fifth generation — E80 series — 1983

Fifth generation
Production 1983-1987
Similar Ford Escort
Honda Civic
Mazda 323
Nissan Sentra

The fifth generation is generally regarded as the most popular Corolla when measured against its contemporaries, and some 3.3 million units were produced. This model, from 1983, moved the Corolla into front wheel drive, except for the AE85 and AE86 Corolla Levin / Sprinter Trueno models (SR-5 / GT-S in USA) which continued on the older rear wheel drive platform, along with the three-door "liftback" (E72), three-door van (E70) and five-door wagon (E70) of the previous generation, that were still being produced.

The front-wheel-drive wheelbase was now 95.6 in (2428 mm).

It was the first Corolla to top the New Zealand top-10 lists, ending Ford's dominance of that market. A "short" hatchback range, called the Corolla FX in Japan and the Corolla Compact in Germany, arrived in 1984, on the front-wheel-drive platform. The three and five-door hatchbacks resembled the Corolla sedan with a truncated rear deck and trunk. Although there was a five-door liftback model of the basic Corolla, the FX-based hatchback was sold alongside it. The Corolla FX replaced the Toyota Starlet in North America.

A DOHC 16-valve engine, designated 4A-GE, was added in 1983 on the rear-drive cars. It was a 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4 and produced an impressive 124 hp (92 kW), turning the Levin/Trueno (Japan), Corolla GT coupé (Europe) and Corolla GT-S into a popular sports car. This engine was also combined with the front-drive transaxle to power the mid-engined Toyota MR-2.

The Sprinter sports cars, in two-door coupé and three-door liftback forms, were notable for the line's first use of pop-up headlamps, which the equivalent Corolla Levin sports models did not have. These AE86 models have been immortalized in the anime series Initial D, and have been also featured in the computer and video games Need for Speed: Underground 2, Gran Turismo 2, 3 & 4, the Tokyo Extreme Racer series,and Auto Modellista.

A new Corolla FX, built at the US NUMMI plant, appeared in 1987. It was available with either SOHC or DOHC engines, the latter marketed as the FX-16.

USA (1984-1987)

American engines:

  • 4A-C 1.6 L I4, 8-valve SOHC, carb, 90 hp (67 kW)
  • 4A-GE 1.6 L I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 115 hp (86 kW)

US-market chassis:

  • AE82 — FWD sedan, 2-door/4-door, hatchback(Std, LE, LE Ltd) 3-door (FX/FX16)
  • AE84 — 4WD 5-door wagon (Std, DX)
  • AE85 — RWD coupé 2-door, 3-door hatchback (SR-5)
  • AE86 — RWD coupé 2-door, 3-door hatchback, (GT-S)

Europe (1984-1987)

Australian engines:

  • 4A-C 1.6 L, 8-valve SOHC, carb, 78 hp (58 kW)
  • 4A-GE 1.6 L I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 115 hp (86 kW)

Australian-market chassis:

  • AE80 — FWD 4-door sedan /5-door hatchback
  • AE82 — FWD 4-door sedan /5-door hatchback
  • AE86 — RWD 2-door coupé /3-door hatchback (Badged as Toyota Sprinter)

European engines

  • 2A 1.3 L, 8-valve SOHC, carb, 69 hp
  • 4A 1.6 L, 8-valve SOHC, carb, 84 hp
  • 4A-GE 1.6 L I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 121 hp (86 kW)
  • 1C 1.8 L, Diesel, Mechanical Injection, 58 hp
  • 2E 1.3 L, 12-valve SOHC, carb, 75 hp

European-market chassis:

  • E80 — FWD 4-door sedan /5-door liftback
  • E80 — FWD 3-door liftback
  • E82 — FWD 3-door hatchback
  • E86 — RWD 2-door coupé /3-door hatchback

Sixth generation — E90 series — May 1987

Sixth generation
Also called Geo Prizm, Holden Nova
Production 1987-1992
Body style Sedan, 3-door hatchback, 5-door hatchback, coupé, liftback, wagon.
Engine Gasoline: 1.3, 1.5, 1.6, 1.6 liter Supercharged. Diesel: 2.0 liter.
Transmission 3-Speed Automatic
4-Speed Automatic Overdrive
5-Speed Manual Overdrive
Wheelbase 2430 mm (95.7 in.)
Length 4330 mm (170.3 in.)
Width 1660 mm (65.2 in.)
Height 1330 mm (52.4 in.)
Similar Honda Civic
Mazda Protege
Mitsubishi Mirage
Nissan Sentra

All Corollas were front-drive for 1987, with production beginning in May 1987. For general export, the trim levels are Base, XL, GL, SE, and SE Limited. The GT-i was sold in limited numbers in certain countries. The all wheel drive Sprinter Carib wagon used a solid axle rear suspension with coil springs, while the rest used struts all around. The 4WD wagon was sold from 1988 to 1994 and had different bodywork to other Corollas. It was called the All-Trac in the US and sold with the Tercel or Corolla name in some countries.

The Sprinter five-door liftback was called Cielo in Japan, and re-badged as the Corolla in Europe, though for a period in Ireland (and possibly elsewhere) it was badged the "Sprinter GLS", unusually in cheap-looking decals instead of the metallic-coated plastic badges found on all other Toyotas of the time.

High performance GT-i models are powered by 4A-GE, and offered as 3-door hatchback, sedan, and 5-door liftback. The North American GT-S coupé shared the same engine.

South Africa (1996-2006)

A facelifted version of the sixth-generation five-door hatchback was made in South Africa as an entry-level model called the Toyota Tazz from 1996 till the 5th July 2006. The Tazz was offered as 130, and 160i. Whilst the three-door was sold as a panel van model there, called the Toyota Carri.

Japan (1987—1991)

1987 Toyota Sprinter

The 1.3 liter sedan has 4 speed manual transmission or 3 speed automatic transmission. The only model with 1.5 liter 5A-FHE was SE-Limited G. The 4WD sedan is powered by 1.6 liter 4A-FE. The Sprinter sedan has opera window on the C-Pillar.

The AE92 Levin and Trueno were also fitted with a supercharged engine. It used an SC12 roots type supercharger and a top mounted intercooler that was fed cool air via a scoop on the bonnet. They generated 206 Nm (152 ft·lbs) at 4,400 rpm as opposed to the N/a 4A-GE's 136 Nm (100 ft·lbs) at 4,800 rpm. The Corolla and Sprinter commercial van have recessed headlights.

JPN-market chassis:

  • AE82 — Hatchback FX, FX16, FX16 GTS 1.6 liter
  • EE90 — Sedan 4-door (DX Custom, TX) 1.3 liter
  • AE91 — Sedan 4-door (DX, SE, SE Limited G), wagon 5-door 1.5 liter
  • AE92 — 2 door coupé (Levin), Sedan 4-door (SE Limited, GT) 1.6 liter
  • AE94 — 4WD sedan 4-door (DX, SE Limited) 1.6 liter
  • AE95 — FWD/4WD wagon 5-door (Carib)
  • EE97 — FWD wagon 5-door (Std, XL) 1.3 liter

Japanese engines:

  • 2E — 1.3 liter
  • 5A-F — 1.5 liter
  • 5A-FHE — 1.5 liter
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 liter
  • 4A-GE — 1.6 liter
  • 4A-GZE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, wide valve angle, supercharger, 165 hp (121 kW) GT-Z

USA (1988-1992)

Toyota Corolla DX AE92(North American Model)

American production of the sedan took place at NUMMI and Cambridge, Ontario. These two plants made 279,000 units, making a total of 4.5 million of this generation (AE92) made. The North American models feature longer bumpers and small red indicator lights on the quarter panels. Minor changes for 1991 model years were Toyota (T) ellipse emblem on the grille, all-red tail lights, door-mounted and manual lap front seat belts, and new wheelcovers for DX. Rear garnish was deleted for the Base model. The LE was only available with automatic transmission.

The North American Corolla coupé with retractable headlights was basically a Sprinter Trueno with different front corner lights and longer bumpers. Trim levels are SR5 and GT-S. The GT-S is powered by 4A-GE engine, and comes with full body kits.

Toyota Corolla All-Trac wagon

The four-wheel drive All-trac wagon in Base and SR5 trim levels were sold from 1988 to 1992 and had different bodywork to other Corollas. The Corolla All-trac sedan was sold in very small numbers.

The Geo Prizm shared a slightly different body with the Japan-market Sprinter, and built as sedan and liftback. These models were slightly more basic than their Europe/Japan versions.

American engines:

  • 4A-F — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, carb, 95 hp (71 kW)
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 102 hp (76 kW)
  • 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, wide valve angle, 115 hp (86 kW) GT-S

US-market chassis & VIN code: The Japanese built has JT2 VIN prefix, the NUMMI made has 1NX VIN prefix.

  • AE92 — Sedan 4-door Std (AE91), DX (AE94), LE (AE97)
  • AE92 — Coupé 2-door SR5 (AE96), GT-S (AE98)
  • AE95 — 4WD sedan 4-door All-Trac (AE94)
  • AE95 — FWD/4WD wagon 5-door Std, DX, All-Trac (AE95)

Europe (1988-1992)

European engines:

  • 2E — 1.3 L (1295 cc), 12-valve SOHC, carb, 74 hp (55 kW)
  • 4A-F — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, carb, 95 hp (71 kW)
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 102 hp (76 kW)
  • 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, wide valve angle, 115 hp (86 kW) GT-S
  • 1C-III — 1.8 L (1839 cc) I4 diesel, OHC, 67 hp (50 kW)

European-market chassis:

  • E-90 — 1.3 Sedan 4-door (XL)
  • E-92 - 1.6 Sedan 4-door (GL, GLi, XLi)
  • E-92 — 1.6 Hatchback 3-door (GT-i)
  • Liftback 5-door based on Sprinter sedan (XL, GL, GT)

The European model Corolla 4-door sedan, 3 and 5-door hatchback, and the wagon basically has the front end of the Japan-spec Corolla FX, except for the all white clearance lights and the "TOYOTA" or the ellipse emblem instead of the "FX" or "GT" of the Japanese model. It has the standard side marker lights and the taillight with the integrated rear foglamp (except for the wagon, which has the rear foglamp on the tailgate.) It also has headlight washers on the XL and the XLi models.

Australia (1988-1994)

Australian engines:

  • 4A-F — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, carb, 95 hp (71 kW) CS, CSX & Spirit
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 102 hp (76 kW) XL, SR5, CSi, CSi Limited, Olympic Spirit
  • 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, wide valve angle, 135hp (100 kW) SX & GTi
  • 6A-FC — 1.4 L (1397cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, carb, narrow valve angle, 81 hp (60 kW) SE
  • 7A-FE — 1.8 L (1762 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 115 hp (85 kW) Seca RV & Seca Ultima

Australian-market chassis:

  • E-90 — Sedan, Hatchback (SE)
  • E-92 — Sedan, Hatchback, Seca (CS, CSX, Spirit, SE, SX)
  • E-93 — Hatchback, Seca (SX, GTi)
  • E-94 — Sedan, Hatchback, Seca (CSi, CSi Limited, Ultima)
  • E-95 — Wagon (XL, SR5, CSi, Olympic Spirit)
  • E-96 — Seca (RV, Ultima)


  • Liftbacks were referred to as Secas on the Australian market
  • All 6th generation Corollas were 4 door on the Australian market
  • The Sprinter Carib Wagon was released in mid 1988, Hatchback, Seca & Sedan released mid 1989
  • SX is generally AE93 although on rare occasions they are found to be AE92R
  • The facelift series 2 models were released in October 1992
  • 6AFC was only found in SE hatchbacks and early SE Sedans
  • 7AFE corollas were AE94 Ultimas in early 1992 and AE96 Ultimas & RV's in late 92 onwards

Seventh generation — E100 series — June 1991

Seventh generation
Also called Geo Prizm
Production 1991-1997
Body style Sedan, 3-door hatchback, 5-door hatchback, coupé, liftback, Station wagon.
Engine Gasoline: 1.3, 1.5, 1.6, 1.6 Supercharged, 1.8 liter. Diesel: 2.0 liter.
Transmission 3-Speed Automatic
4-Speed Automatic Overdrive
5-Speed Manual Overdrive
6-Speed Manual
Wheelbase 246 cm (97.0 in.)
Length 437 cm (172.0 in.)
Width 168 cm (66.3 in.)
Height 136 cm (53.5 in.)
Similar Honda Civic
Hyundai Elantra
Mazda Protege
Nissan Sentra / Nissan Sunny

The next Corolla (AE10x/EE10x) was larger, heavier, and visually more aerodynamic than the model it replaces, with development chief Dr. Akihiko Saito wanting to develop a 'mini-Lexus', after success with that range's flagship. With its 2465 mm (97 in) wheelbase, the Corolla had moved into the compact size class once occupied by the Toyota Corona and Camry. The coupé was dropped for North America, replaced by the Paseo.

The Corolla sedan is nicknamed "Great Corolla" in Indonesia. Initially the trim levels were 1.3 SE and 1.6 SE-G. The smaller engine model was replaced by 1.6 SE in 1994.

The 1.3 XLi, 1.5 GLi sedan, wagon, and Levin 1.5 SJ coupé were sold in Hong Kong.

In the Philippines, three variants were sold, XL and XE with 1.3-liter carbureted (2E) engines, and the GLi, with a 1.6-liter fuel-injected motor (4A-FE). The top model was offered in both manual and automatic transmissions. The Corolla was also the first 1.6-liter car to introduce 14-inch alloy wheels to the country in 1992. Other pioneer features that followed were rear seatbelts (late 1994) and a driver's airbag (late 1995).

Japan (1991-1996)

This model was not as successful compared to previous series due to a rising yen and home-market recession, blunting demand. The standard Corolla model range included the 5 door hatch back and lift back models, 2 door hatch back and the 4 door sedan and station wagon models. Also returning in this model line were the two-door coupés, the Trueno and the Levin. A 4WD variant of the sedan and station wagon were also available with a 1.6 liter gasoline or 2.0 liter diesel engine. Minor face lift changes were introduced in May of 1993 these included a new grille, a reconfiguration of the rear lamps and various bits of trim and garnish. Various submodels including the 4-door hardtop Corolla Ceres and Sprinter Marino were also available. They bore no real exterior resemblance but feature the chasis and most of the engine range of the standard Corollas.

Japanese engines:

  • 4E-FE — 1.3 L (1331 cc) I4 cylinder 16v DOHC 97ps
  • 5E-FE — 1.5 L (1497 cc) I4 cylinder 16v DOHC 105ps
  • 5A-FE — 1.5 L (1498 cc) I4 cylinder 16v DOHC 105ps
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4 cylinder 16v DOHC 115ps
  • 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4 cylinder 20v DOHC VVT 160ps
  • 2C — 2.0 L Diesel(1974 cc) I4 cylinder SOHC 73ps

Japanese manual transaxles:

  • C40 4M/T
  • C51 5M/T
  • C52 5M/T
  • C50 5M/T
  • C56 5M/T
  • C160 6M/T
  • S50 5M/T
  • E59F 5M/T
  • E55F 5M/T (4WD)

Japanese automatic transaxles:

  • A240L 4A/T
  • A254E 4A/T
  • A246E 4A/T
  • A241L 4A/T
  • A132L 3A/T
  • A241H 4A/T (4WD)

JPN-market chassis: The following list is not complete or inclusive. For example, "AE102" does not define "wagon". There are also wagons with "EE104" and "AE101" model codes (among others).

  • EE100 — 1.3 liter sedan (DX, LX, XE).
  • AE100 — 1.5 liter sedan (DX, LX, XE, SE-Limited), and coupé (Levin / Trueno S).
  • AE101 — 1.6 liter sedan (SE-G, GT, Marino), FX hatchback (SJ, GT), Wagon (BZ-Touring) and coupé (Levin / Trueno SJ, GT, GT APEX, GT-Z).
  • AE102 — 1.8-liter Wagon, 5-door.
  • AE104 — 1.6 liter sedan 4WD (LX Limited, XE, SE Limited).
  • CE104 - diesel sedan 4WD
  • CE106 — Wagon, 5-door, Diesel.

USA and Canada (1993-1997)

In North America, the Corolla was new for the 1993 model year. It had a different grille and longer bumpers than models for other regions. The base model came with the 1.6 liter 4A-FE engine. The DX, LE and wagon came with the 1.8 liter 7A-FE. The 1993 and 1994 versions of the 7A-FE engine were rated at 86 kW (115 hp), later versions rated at 78 kW (105 hp). The LE has sporty front seats and was available in the US with A/T only or available in Canada with either A/T or M/T. Minor changes occurred for the 1996 model year. Among these changes, the DX received bright red/clear tail lights and rear garnish, and new wheel covers. The LE was discontinued for 1996, and the Base model was also offered with CE Package. Sporty Corollas and 4WD Corollas were no longer imported during this generation. Some 1993 Corollas sold in Canada were produced in Japan.

USA and Canada Engines:

  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 105 hp (78 kW)
  • 7A-FE — 1.8 L (1762 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 115 hp (86 kW) DX LE Wagon
  • 7A-FE — 1.8 L (1762 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 105 hp (78 kW) DX LE Wagon

US and Canada chassis codes:

  • E-101 — Sedan 4-door with 1.6 4A-FE (Base, CE)
  • E-102 — Sedan 4-door with 1.8 7A-FE (DX, LE)
  • E-102 — Wagon 5-door with 1.8 7A-FE (DX, LE)

Europe (1992-1997)

The five-door Sprinter was sold as the Corolla Sprinter in Europe, confusingly. The three and five-door Corolla FX was also sold in Europe simply as the Corolla, and was available mostly in normal (non-sports) specs unlike the FX range available in Japan. In Europe, the hatchback sold better than sedan and wagon. Although basically the trim levels are Base, XLi and GLi, also there was the GS. The GS featured a fully colour coded exterior and with full electrics and a tilt/slide steel sunroof. It also had an upgraded interior with white dials and a rev counter. in UK the Corolla was marketed as S, CD, and CDX. The sedan has rear license plate mounted on the trunk as opposed to other region models on the bumper.

Additional Engines available in Europe:

  • 2E — 1.3 L (1296 cc) I4, 12-valve SOHC, Carburetor 71 hp (53 kW)
  • 4E-FE — 1.3 L (1332 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 88 hp (65 kW) (1992-1995)
  • 4E-FE — 1.4 L I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, "Ecotronic", 75 hp (55 kW) (1996-1997)
  • 2C-III — 2.0 L (1975 cc) diesel (53 kW)

Eighth Generation — E110 series — May 1995

Eighth generation
Also called Chevrolet Prizm
Production 1995-2002
Body style 4-door sedan, 2-door coupé, 3-door hatchback, 5-door liftback, wagon
Transmission 3-Speed Automatic
4-Speed Automatic Overdrive
5-Speed Manual Overdrive
6-Speed Manual Overdrive
Wheelbase 246 cm (97.0 in.)
Length 442 cm (174.0 in.)
Width 169 cm (66.7 in.)
Height 138 cm (54.5 in.)
Curb weight 1095 kg (2414 lbs.) (Manual)
Related Toyota RAV4
Similar Honda Civic
Hyundai Elantra
Mazda Protege
Mitsubishi Mirage

The eighth generation (AE11#), which shared its platform (and doors, on some models) with its predecessor, was introduced in May 1995. Due to recession, Toyota ordered that Corolla development chief Takayasu Honda cuts costs, hence the carryover engineering.

For general market, the Corolla was offered in Base, XLi, GLi, and SE-G trim levels.

Japan (1995-2000)

The Japanese had a version called the "Corolla GT" which is a 4-door, 165 hp, 6-speed sedan. Other lesser models are LX, XE Limited, SE Limited, and S-Cruise. 4WD is offered in all but S-Cruise and GT.

This marked the beginning of the end of the Sprinter. The Sprinter Trueno coupé range was carried over with a facelift, while the wagon was identical to the Corolla.

Japanese models received minor changes in April 1997 with new nose, tail, and interior. The rear panel is totally different, therefore the trunk and tail lights are not interchangeable between the old and facelift models. The new Japanese rear panel is the same as the European model.

Japanese Engines:

  • 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 20-valve DOHC, FI, 165 hp (123 kW)
  • 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 115 hp (86 kW)
  • 5A-FE — 1.5 L (1498 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • 4E-FE — 1.3 L (1331 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 88 hp (66 kW)
  • 3C-E — 2.2 L (2184 cc) I4, diesel, Electronic Fuel Injection, 79 hp (59 kW)
  • 2C-III — 2.0 L (1974 cc) I4, diesel, FI, 73 hp (54 kW)

JPN-market chassis:

  • E-111 — Sedan SE-G, S-Cruise, GT
  • E-110 — Sedan LX, XE, SE Limited
  • E-114 — AWD sedan

USA (1998-2002)

All North American Corollas were now built in California (by NUMMI) or Canada (by TMMC). A new all-aluminum engine powered all Corollas, making this generation lighter than its predecessor. In the US market only sedans were offered. Grades are VE, CE, and LE. The Touring Package with side skirts, a whiteface instrument cluster, and aluminum wheels are reserved for CE and LE. VVT-i variable valve timing was added to the engine for 2000. For 2001 model year, the VE was deleted, the CE became the base model and the sporty S was added as the replacement of the Touring Package.

The Chevrolet Prizm (replacing the Geo Prizm) had two main differences from the Toyota Corolla, though they were made in the same plant: it used the Japanese intake manifold and tuning, and put in a Delco stereo, which provided better sound quality but required a replumbing of the center stack as the Delco unit is taller than the Denso. The 1999 Prizm has a Delco HVAC system which is different from the Corolla.

The US-market 2001 Toyota Corolla has a maximum legal carrying capacity of 390 kg (850 lbs).

American engines: (ZZE-112)

  • 1998-1999 — 1ZZ-FE — 1.8 L (1794 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, 120 hp (89 kW) @ 5600 rpm, 165 Nm (122 ft·lbs.) @ 4400 rpm
  • 2000-2002 — 1ZZ-FE — 1.8 L (1794 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVT-i, 125 hp (93 kW)

Europe and Oceania (1996-2001)

This range had different front and rear ends to the Japanese models, though the sides and interior remained mostly the same. It can be distinguished by the round headlights and mesh grille. As a result, a sporting model with a six-speed gearbox was offered. The European three door hatchback is the base for the Corolla World Rally Car (WRC). In Australia the Corolla liftback is called Seca. Grades for sedan and Seca are Ascent, Conquest, and Ultima. The Seca Sportivo with turbocharged 7A-FE engine was added in 2001. In 1997, the Corolla Spacio, with its body panels stamped at long-time Toyota supplier Kanto Autoworks, was introduced as a two-box minivan version and sold as the Toyota Corolla Verso, which was technically similar to the Toyota Avensis in Europe and the Toyota Spacio in New Zealand.

This generation received a facelift in 1999, featuring a different nose (the previous round headlights proved unpopular, so it was replaced with twin smaller headlights under a single cover on either side ), and the new ZZ series engines with VVT-i replacing the old A series engines.

Ninth generation — E120 series — August 2000

Ninth generation
Production 2000-present
Body style Sedan, 3- and 5-door hatchback, wagon, van
Engine 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8 litre gasoline, 2.2 litre diesel
Transmission 4-Speed Automatic Overdrive
5-Speed Manual Overdrive
6-Speed Manual Overdrive
Wheelbase 260 cm (102.4 in)
Length 453 cm (178.3 in) (Altis and North American spec)
Width 170 cm (66.9 in)
Height 149 cm (58.5 in)
Related Toyota Matrix
Toyota Voltz
Toyota RAV4
Similar Honda Civic
Hyundai Elantra
Nissan Sentra

The ninth-generation Corolla (NZE120/ZZE120) appeared in August 2000 with edgier styling and a longer 2600 mm (102.4 in) wheelbase. It is built on a shortened Toyota Vista platform—the Vista being a mid-sized, rather than compact car.

The Corolla has also spawned another multi-purpose vehicle, the Matrix, sold in Canada and the United States, and forms the basis of the Pontiac Vibe. The Vibe, in turn, is sold with a different grille in Japan and is called the Toyota Voltz.

Japan (2000-2006)

Like the Vista, the Corolla's width is limited to 1700 mm (67 in), to avoid being in a higher tax bracket in Japan.

The station wagon model is called the Toyota Corolla Fielder in Japan, and the five-door the Toyota Corolla Runx launching in 2001. The Allex was also launched to replace the Sprinter.

The Toyota Corolla Spacio (Verso in Europe) moved on to the new platform, with later models adding a third row of fold-down seating in the back.

Europe (2002-current)

Most European models are wider than the Japanese counterparts.

European engines:

  • 2002–present — 4ZZ-FE — 1.4 L (1398 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVT-i, 95 hp (71 kW)
  • 2002–present — 3ZZ-FE — 1.6 L (1598 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVT-i, 109 hp (81 kW)
  • 2002–2005 — 2ZZ-GE — 1.8 L (1796 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVTL-i, 189 hp (141 kW)
  • 2006–present — 2ZZ-GE — 1.8 L (1796 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, supercharged, FI, VVTL-i, 215 hp (162 kW) — Compressor
  • 2004–present — 1ND-TV — 1.4 L (1364 cc) I4 diesel, 16-valve DOHC, turbocharged, D-4D, 89 hp (66 kW)
  • 2003–present — 1CD-FTV — 2.0 L (1995 cc) I4 diesel, 16-valve DOHC, turbocharged, D-4D, 114 hp (85 kW)

Southeast Asia (excluding Hong Kong, Japan & India)

An offshoot of the Corolla model, called the Corolla Altis is also sold there. Sharing similar front and rear ends to the U.S. Corolla, the Altis is targeted at consumers who prefer more comfort than the current Corolla but do not wish to buy the more luxurious Camry. The Corolla Altis is manufactured in Thailand. Two versions of engine are available, the 87 kW (116 bhp) 1.6 (3ZZ-FE) and the 100 kW (134 bhp) 1.8 (1ZZ-FE), both featuring VVTi. The Altis range of the Corolla is sold in Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. For 2004 model year, the Altis received a new grille design, LED tail lights, and different alloy wheels. In Singapore, Toyota's exclusive authorised dealer Borneo Motors originally sold the Japanese-version Corolla, but later replaced it with the Corolla Altis. In Thailand, the Japanese Corolla is also branded as the Toyota Limo, featuring lower spec and intended for taxi business. It is not to be confused with the taxi version of Toyota Vios which is also called Toyota Limo, but in Indonesia.

USA (2003-current)

The North American model is longer and is the same as the Corolla Altis distributed in Southeast Asia. It came to the United States in Spring 2002 as model year 2003. Initially trim levels are CE, S, and LE.

The torsion bar suspension and drum brakes in the rear are anachronisms, however. The sporty XRS model, introduced for 2005 & 2006 only, features the high-revving 127 kW (170 hp) 172 Nm (127 ft lbs) 2ZZ-GE engine and 6 speed manual from the Toyota Celica GT-S and Lotus Elise.

American engines: (ZZE-122)

  • 2002-present — 1ZZ-FE — 1.8 L (1794 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVT-i, 130 hp (97 kW) — CE, LE, S (TRD 1.8L Supercharger is available for this engine)
  • 2005 — 2ZZ-GE — 1.8 L (1796 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVTL-i, 170 hp (127 kW) — XRS

Rest of the world

In Brazil, the Corolla sedan and the Corolla Fielder are built locally. It is available with the 1.6 3ZZ-FE engine (sedan only) and the 1ZZ-FE. The sedan is externally identical to the US model, but the Fielder has a different styling from the Japanese version.

The Corolla sedan, wagon and 5-door hatchback (Seca) sold in Australia are sourced from Japan, while a few years ago, some hatchbacks were sourced from South Africa. Trim levels are Ascent, Ascent Sport, Conquest, and Ultima (Auto sedan only). The sporty Levin (hatchback and wagon) and high performance Sportivo was available in hatchback only and was built in South Africa. The Sportivo is powered by 2ZZ-GE engine and a six-speed manual gearbox (also used in the Celica) , while the other models have 1ZZ-FE. The Sportivo was discontinued in Australia from 2006 due to the prohibitive costs involved in modifying the engine to comply with Euro IV emissions. All the other models all had their engine power and torque reduced to 93 kW and 161 N•m from 100 kW and 171 N•m respectively from October 2005 production to comply with Euro IV. From May 2006 production, the Ascent and Ascent Sport models were upgraded with standard front power windows and passenger airbag, while the Conquest models had ABS brakes as standard fitment. The equipment upgrades only apply to the sedan and hatch models as the Corolla wagon ceased production in August 2006.

In China, when Toyota introduced its locally-made Corolla, it is named as Toyota Huaguan, Huaguan being the translation of the word corolla.

Tenth Generation — E140 series — October 2006

Tenth generation
Production 2006-present
Body style Sedan, Wagon
Related Toyota Auris
Similar Chevrolet Cobalt
Honda Civic
Nissan Sentra
Toyota Corolla Fielder

The tenth generation Corolla was released in Japan on 10th October, 2006.


The sedan is now known as the Corolla Axio [2] The Axio name was created from the Greek word "axia", meaning "things with value". The station wagon retains the Corolla Fielder name. To save neck-twisting, the Corolla gets Toyota's latest intelligent parking-assist system. The option costs ¥105,000, or $879 at current exchange rates. A backup camera monitor is standard. All hatchback models were replaced by the Toyota Auris.


A rearview monitor displays an image of the area to the rear of the vehicle while backing up to reduce the burden on the driver when parking (standard on all Corolla Axio models).

The optional advanced Intelligent Parking Assist system supports steering operations when parallel parking and backing into a parking space. Ultrasonic sensors installed on the front of the vehicle detect other parked vehicles and based on the results estimate the physical dimensions of a vacant parking space and set the target parking position. The Corolla Axio features a new Pre-crash Safety System that uses millimeter-wave radar. When the millimeter-wave radar detects a high risk of collision, the Pre-crash Seatbelts provide better initial restraint capabilities for passengers while the Pre-Crash Brake Assist system decelerates the vehicle to reduce the collision speed and contribute to less collision-caused damage. The new Radar Cruise Control system detects and monitors the preceding vehicle and the lane, maintaining a fixed distance according to the preceding vehicle's speed within a preset range of speed.

North America

The North American market will not get the redesigned Corolla until 2007[3]. That will stretch the goal of Toyota President Katsuaki Watanabe to release the Corolla in overseas markets within "a year and a few months" of the Japan debut. Insiders say the plain-vanilla styling offered in Japan can't compete against the Honda Civic in North America. [4]


The new Corolla will be introduced to the Australian market early in 2007. It will be available in both sedan and hatchback models, with more safety features and higher levels of luxury. The new 1.8-litre 2ZR-FE Dual VVT-i - with variable valve timing in the exhaust valves - will be the only engine available for the Australian model, with superior fuel economy as its key selling feature. It is expected that the new Corolla will be fitted with a 6-speed manual transmission as standard, with a CVT as a likely option, if not a 5-speed automatic, along with features normally reserved for Lexus models, including xenon headlamps and additional airbags for rear passengers. Although the new hatch will be wearing the Auris name in most world markets, it is expected the Corolla name will be retained for the Australian market.

Europe and China

The global debut of the third variant of the new Corolla was staged at the Beijing Auto Show. This variant, which uses a wider and longer version of the Axio's platform, has styling similar to that of the Camry's while keeping the Axio's interior. The European and Chinese market will receive this variant, which is likely to also be sold in ASEAN and Taiwan markets as the new Altis. The Chinese market Corolla's name was also changed to match the English name in pronunciation.


In Australia, Toyota Corolla models built between 1982-2004 were assessed in the Used Car Safety Ratings 2006:[5]

  • (1982-1984) — significantly worse than average level of occupant protection
  • (1986-1988) — worse than average
  • (1989-1993) — worse than average
  • (1994-1997) — average
  • (1998-2001) — significantly better than average
  • (2002-2004) — average

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Toyota Corolla
  • Toyota
  • Toyota AE86
  • Chevrolet Nova Re-badged Corolla
  • Geo Prizm Chevrolet re-badged Corolla


  1. ^ History of the Corolla
  2. ^ 10th Generation Corolla released
  3. ^ Motortrend future vehicles
  4. ^ 10th Generation Corolla released
  5. ^ Used Car Safety Ratings 2006 for Toyota Corolla in Australia
  • TRD Forums, Toyota Enthusiast Site
  • Edmunds' Corolla history
  • Official U.S. Website
  • Corolland (all years)
  • Australian Corolla Enthusiast Site
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