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Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857-1945)
Gesta Danorum ("Deeds of the Danes") is a work Japanesse Translations of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Japanes Translations Grammaticus ("Saxo the Literate", literally "the Grammarian"). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark and an essential source Japanees Translations Japnese Translations for the nation's early history, one that helps define the national identity.
- 1 Gesta Danorum
- 1.1 Chronology
- 1.2 Manuscripts
- 1.3 Translations
- 1.3.1 Latin Jappanese Translations Japanse Translations versions
- 1.3.2 Danish translations
- 1.3.3 English Japannese Translations translations
- 1.3.4 German, Spanish, Italian, and Japanese Japanee Translations translations
- 2 Influences
- 3 References
- 4 External Apanese Translations links
In sixteen Japaese Translations books, written in Latin on Japamese Translations the invitation of Archbishop Absalon, it describes Danish history and to Japanesee Translations some degree Scandinavian history in general, from prehistory to the late 12th century. It Japnaese Translations is told in a sparkling and entertaining language, that reads as well today as it did back Jpanese Translations then.
The sixteen books, in prose with an occasional excursus into poetry, can be categorized into two parts, book 1-9 being what is known as the Old Norse part and Book 10-16 being medieval history. Book 9 ends with Gorm the Old, the first factual documented King of Denmark. The last three books (14-16), telling about danish conquests on the south of Baltic Sea and war against slavic piracy, are very valuable for the history of West Slavic tribes (Polabian Slavs, Pomeranians) and paganism slavic religion. Book 14 contains a unique description of the temple at Rügen Island.
Since the work itself contains no dates of any kind, neither for events nor to identify when it was written, it can be problematic dating some persons and events of the Old Norse part. The only clue is the mention of Jesus' birth during Frode III's reign in Book 5. This single point helps establish the dating of events in the first nine books. By counting back the number of generations told of by Saxo, allowing for [missing] years per generation, one arrives roughly at 600 BC for the start of the work.
Angers Fragment, page 1, front
When the book was written, and in what order the books were written, is a matter of historical interpretation.
When exactly it was written is the subject of numerous books, however it is generally agreed that it was not finished before 1208. The last event described in the last book (Book 16) is King Canute VI of Denmark subduing Pomerania under Duke Bogislaw I, in 1186. However the preface of the work, dictated to Archbishop Anders Sunesen, mentions the Danish conquest of the areas north of the Elbe in 1208.
Book 14, comprising nearly one-quarter of the text of the entire work, ends with Absalon's appointment to Archbishop in 1178. That this book is so large and Absalon has greater importance than King Valdemar I makes it likely that this book was written first and comprised a work on its own. It is possible that Saxo then enlarged it with Books 15 and 16, telling the story of King Valdemar I's last years and King Canute VI's first years.
It is believed that Saxo then wrote Books 11, 12 and 13. Svend Aagesen's history of Denmark, Brevis Historia Regum Dacie (circa 1186), states that Saxo had decided to write about "The king-father and his sons," which would be King Sweyn Estridson, in Books 11, 12, and 13. He would later add the first ten books. This would also explain the 22 years between the last event described in the last book (Book 16) and the 1208 event described in the preface.
Front page of Christiern Pedersen's Saxo version, Paris 1514
The original manuscripts of the work are lost, except four fragments known as the Angers Fragment, Lassen Fragment, Kall-Rasmussen Fragment and Plesner Fragment. The Angers Fragment, the biggest fragment and the only one attested to be on Saxo’ own handwriting. The other ones are copies from ca. 1275. They now all reside in the Royal Library in Copenhagen.
We do have the text, however. In 1510-1512, Christiern Pedersen, a Danish translator working in Paris, searched Denmark high and low for an existing copy of Saxo’s works, which by that time was nearly all but lost. By that time most knowledge of Saxo’s work came from a summary located in Chronica Jutensis, of ca. 1342, called Compendium Saxonis. It is also in this summary the name Gesta Danorum is found. We do not know the title Saxo himself used.
Christiern Pedersen finally found a copy with Archbishop Birger Gunnersen of Lund, which he gladly lent him. With the help of Josse Bades, they refined and printed it, so that the first printed press publication and the oldest known version of Saxo’s works, is Christiern Pedersen's Latin version, printed and published by Jodocus Badius Ascensius, Paris, March 15, 1514. The colophon is: ... impressit in inclyta Parrhisorum academia Iodocus Badius Ascensius Idibus Martiis. MDXIIII. Supputatione Romana. Ides of March.
The source of all existing translations and new versions today can be found in Christiern Pedersen's Latin version Danorum Regum heroumque Historiae. There exist a number different translations today, some whole some partly.
- Christiern Pedersen, published 1514, title: Danorum Regum heroumque Historiae
- Johannes Oporinus, published 1534, title: Saxonis Grammatici Danorum Historiae Libri XVI
- Philip Lonicer, published 1576, title: Danica Historia Libris XVI
- Stephan Hansen Stephanius, published 1645, title: Saxonis Grammatici Historiæ Danicæ Libri XVI
- Christian Adolph Klotz, published 1771, title: ?
- Peter Erasmus Müller, published 1839, title: Saxonis Grammatici Historia Danica
- Alfred Holder, published 1886, title: Saxonis Grammatici Gesta Danorum
- Jørgen Olrik & Hans Ræder, published 1931, title: Saxonis Gesta Danorum
- Karsten Friis-Jensen, published 2005, title: Gesta Danorum ISBN 978-87-12-04025-5 (ISBN-13) ISBN 87-12-04025-8
- Christiern Pedersen, never published ca. 1540, Lost
- Jon Tursons, never published ca. 1555, Lost
- Anders Sørensen Vedel, published 1575, title: Den Danske Krønicke
- Sejer Schousbölle, published 1752, title: Saxonis Grammatici Historia Danica
- Nicolai Grundtvig, published 1818-1822, title: Danmarks Krønike af Saxo Grammaticus
- Frederik Winkel Horn, published 1898, title: Saxo Grammaticus: Danmarks Krønike
- Jørgen Olrik, published 1908-1912, title: Sakses Danesaga
- Peter Zeeberg, published 2000, title: Saxos Danmarkshistorie ISBN 87-12-03496-7 (complete) ISBN 87-12-03534-3 (vol 1) ISBN 87-12-03535-1 (vol 2)
- Oliver Elton, published 1894, title: The First Nine Books of the Danish History of Saxo Grammaticus
- Peter Fisher, published 1979-1980, title: Saxo Grammaticus: The History of the Danes
- Eric Christiansen, published 1980-1981, title: Saxo Grammaticus: Danorum regum heroumque historia, books X-XVI
- William F. Hansen, published 1983, title: Saxo Grammaticus and the life of Hamlet
German, Spanish, Italian, and Japanese translations
- Hermann Jantzen, published 1900, title: Saxo Grammaticus. Die ersten neun Bücher der dänischen Geschichte
- Ludovica Koch & Maria Adele Cipolla, published 1993, title: Sassone Grammatico: Gesta dei re e degli eroi danesi
- Yukio Taniguchi, published 1993, title: Sakuso Guramatikusu: Denmakujin no jiseki
- Santiago Ibáñez Lluch, published 1999, title: Saxo Gramático: Historia Danesa
It is also translated partly to other English, French and German releases.
Certain aspects of Gesta Danorum formed the basis for William Shakespeare's play, Hamlet. It is thought that Shakespeare never read Gesta Danorum, and instead had access to an auxiliary version of the tale describing the downfall of the Prince of Denmark, whose real name - Amleth - was used in anagram by Shakespeare for Hamlet. Saxo’s version, told of in Book 3 and 4, is very similar to that of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. In Saxo's version, two brothers, Orvendil and Fengi are given the rule over Jutland by King Rørik Slyngebond of the Danes. Soon after, Orvendil marries King Rørik’s daughter, Geruth (Gertrude in Hamlet). Amleth is their first and only child. Fengi becomes resentful of his brother’s marriage, and also wants sole leadership of Jutland, so therefore murders Orvendil. After a very brief period of mourning, Fengi marries Geruth, and declares himself sole leader of Jutland. Eventually, Amleth avenges his father’s murder and plans the murder of his uncle, making him the new and rightful king of Jutland.
- Hilda Ellis Davidson, Peter Fisher (trans), Saxo Grammaticus: The History of the Danes, Books I-IX : I. English Text; II. Commentary, modern English translation, 2002, ISBN 0-85991-502-6
- Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum, Books I-IX, translated to English by Oliver Elton 1905.
- Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum, from the Royal Library in Copenhagen, Danish and Latin.
- Helle Stangerup, Saxo Hans værk – Hans verden, Høst & Søn forlag 2004, ISBN 87-14-29949-6
- Apoteker Sibbernsens Saxobog, C. A. Reitzels Forlag, Copenhagen, 1927
- Frederik Winkel Horn, Saxo Grammaticus: Danmarks Krønike, Chr. Flors Boghandel, Copenhangen 1911.
- Jørgen Olrik & H Ræder, Saxonis Gesta Danorum, Levin & Munkesgaard, Copenhagen, 1931
- Anders Sørensen Vedel, Den Danske Krønicke Saxo-oversættelse 1575 udgivet i facimile af Det danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab, G. E. C Gad, Copenhagen, 1967
- Curt Weibull, Saxo. Kritiska undersökningar i Danmarks historia från Sven Estridsens död till Knut VI., Lund, Blekingska boktryckeriet, 1915 (in Historisk tidskrift för Skåneland, band 6, häfte 1-3)
- On-Line Medieval and Classical History: The Danish History books I-IX, translated by Oliver Elton (Norroena Society, New York, 1905)."His seven later books are the chief Danish authority for the times which they relate; his first nine, here translated, are a treasure of myth and folk-lore" (Elton, Introduction).
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