Japanese Cartoon
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Japanese Cartoon
The Human Cartoon 

The State - Jan 11 9:14 PM
Magician Dan Sylvester can’t quite remember exactly what made him decide to become a living cartoon. “There’s so many sources and so many things that happened,” he said. “Somebody who saw me perform once said, ‘Well you’re kind of cartoonish.’”
Japanese People
Chinese vice president meets Japanese guests 
People's Daily - Jan 12 5:36 AM
Chinese Vice President Zeng Qinghong met in Beijing Friday with a Japanese Diet delegation headed by Kosaka Kenji, member of the House of Representatives of Japanese Diet.

Japanese Chin
Young owner creates hip sushi at Itto in San Ramon 
Inside Bay Area - Jan 12 3:11 AM
DESMOND CHIN has a spiky Hollywood coif befitting the edgy image of modern sushi bars. But when a reporter set off his cell on 10:30 Tuesday morning, Chin sounded as bedraggled as a fallen diva.

Japanese Recipes
Up Next And Recaps 
CBS News - Jan 12 9:00 AM
COVER: Bad Cars: American buyers have been turning their backs on "Big Three" cars in favor of Toyotas and Hondas because the Japanese have been making superior quality vehicles. Surprise!

Japanese Av
Japan Hot Stocks-Paper makers, Nintendo, Mitsumi, Fujiya 
Reuters via Yahoo! Asia News - Jan 10 7:32 PM
TOKYO, Jan 11 (Reuters) - The following stocks are on the move on Thursday: **PAPER MAKERS UP AFTER CS RAISES SECTOR RATING** Shares of Oji Paper Co. and other Japanese paper makers up after Credit Suisse raised its rating on the sector to "overweight" from "market weight", citing expectations for ...


Japanese Language
SECURE-RES Booking Engine Enhances Guest Experience With Integration of Multi-Language Functionality and Personalization 
Hospitality Net - Jan 11 8:24 AM
Jacksonville, FL | SECRURE-RES releases IBE 3.0 featuring multi-language functionality. Content previously available only in English can now be configured to appear in Spanish, German, French, and Japanese as well. IBE 3.0 will remember and personalize the language configured for a particular computer for one year.


Japanese Clothing
Yen weakness boosts Japanese exporters 
FT.com via Yahoo! News - Jan 11 8:50 PM
Japanese stocks rose sharply on Friday morning, led by export stocks boosted by a fall in the yen to its lowest level in more than a year against the dollar.

Japanese Skirt
The Secret Island 
La Prensa San Diego - 1 hour, 33 minutes ago
Bee writes a school essay about her immigrant parents. Does that have anything to do with why her papa was stopped in his cab and arrested? Now everything is inside out and upside down and Ma always says things opposite to the way Papa used to say them.

Japanese Geisha
Japanese embrace 'Letters' 
Minneapolis-St. Paul Star Tribune - Jan 11 12:10 PM
Hollywood's recent attempts to tell stories set in Japan have produced some odd Asian-fusion fare. "The Last Samurai" from 2003 gave us Tom Cruise as an American Civil War veteran who mastered traditional warrior skills in a matter of months and delivered an inspiring lecture to Emperor Meiji on being Japanese. More recently, "Memoirs of a Geisha" cast three of China's top actresses in lead ...

Japanese Idols
David Beckham 
My Village Notting Hill - Jan 12 2:30 AM
Becks to play in America - Jan 11 2007 David Beckham is moving to America to play for Los Angeles Galaxy, he announced today.

Japanese Tattoo
Tattoo artists drawn to Fairplex 
Whittier Daily news - Jan 09 7:29 PM
POMONA - Tattoo enthusiasts are rolling up their sleeves in anticipation of this weekend's Tattoo and Body Art Expo. More than 100 artists from 21 states will be on hand to tattoo and pierce customers at Fairplex in Pomona.

Japanese Supermodel
Reel Life Adventure: Hollywood to stir up some laughs and thrills in the coming months 
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Jan 10 9:15 PM
It's the good news-bad news side of Pittsburgh as a movie destination. It may be 2007 but some of the top movies of 2006, such as "Last King of Scotland," "Volver" and "Venus" to name just a few, will finally land in theaters.

Japanese Masks
A king-size production 
The News-Press - Jan 11 10:16 PM
More than 200 puppets, 400 costumes and 143 cast members, crew and musicians make "The Lion King" one of the biggest spectacles in Broadway history.

Japanese Supermodels
David Beckham 
My Village Notting Hill - Jan 12 2:30 AM
Becks to play in America - Jan 11 2007 David Beckham is moving to America to play for Los Angeles Galaxy, he announced today.


Japanese Snacks
The Inside Scoop 
CBS News - 2 hours, 56 minutes ago
Get The Inside Scoop on what's happening at CBS News .


Japanese Snack
Restaurant Guide 
East Bay Express - Jan 09 11:32 PM
510 Embarcadero West Oakland, CA 94607 » Oakland: Jack London Square 510-238-9200 http://Yoshis.com Shotaro Kamio (call him Sho) has a dual identity: The chef champions both Japanese traditions and a style of nouvelle cuisine he calls “sousaku,” adding sizzle to a place that has served as snack bar for the adjacent jazz club.

Japanese Boy
Japanese Software Market Up 125% In 2006 
Gamasutra - Jan 12 6:15 AM
Enterbrain, the Japanese publisher behind leading magazine Famitsu, has revealed new data which shows the Japanese games market experienced a significant expansion in 2006, following several years of decline. Software sales for the last twelve months rose by 125 percent to ¥363.89 billion ($3.02bn), with hardware sales up 160 percent to ¥ 261.9 billion ($2.17bn). Despite suffering from ...

Japanese Bikini
Bindi Irwin wants to be her dad 
Independent Online - Jan 11 11:40 PM
She's only eight, but Bindi Irwin, eight-year-old daughter of late Australian Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin, is to help market her country to the world - at the same time that she is launching a show business career.

Japanese T-shirt
Brand It Like Beckham 
Time Magazine - Jan 12 7:07 AM
Here's a tale for our times.

Japanese Houses
Foreign brokers place net Japan stock sell orders 
Reuters via Yahoo! Asia News - Jan 11 3:51 PM
TOKYO, Jan 12 (Reuters) - Orders for Japanese stocks placed through 13 foreign securities houses before the start of trade on Friday showed an intention to sell a net 900,000 shares, market sources said.

Japanese Maples
N. Korea threat may spur neighbors' nuclear options: U.S. spy chief 
Kyodo via Yahoo! Asia News - Jan 11 8:01 PM
_ As the threat from North Korea's nuclear weapons program increases, "other northeast Asian states" may be unable to resist going nuclear, the chief of U.S. spy operations said Thursday.

Japanese Model
Book Report: How the Japanese economy reinvented itself 
International Herald Tribune - Jan 12 10:50 AM
A review of "Japan Remodeled," by Steven Kent Vogel, an analysis of Japan's distinctive market economy.

Japanese History
Report: Japanese lawmaker in North Korea to try to break impasse in nuclear talks 
Boston Herald - Jan 12 9:32 AM
TOKYO - A Japanese lawmaker said he met with North Korean officials in the reclusive country's capital this week in an attempt to break an impasse in the six-nation talks on the North's nuclear...

Japanese Babe
Scooby-Doo's father Iwao Takamoto created a lasting, howling success 
Chicago Tribune - Jan 12 3:26 AM
You had to be 8 years old, on your third bowl of Cap'n Crunch's Crunch Berries, when the sugar rush was reaching your toenails, when the theme song came on in its complete and utter brilliance:

Japanese Fashion
A fashion statement to help the homeless 
The Ham&High Network - Jan 12 7:31 AM
A NEW Chalk Farm charity shop is hoping to help both its customers and the homeless sleep easier at night. Social exclusion charity Novas, owners of the Arlington House hostel in Camden Town, is launching the Rough Sleepers store on Chalk Farm Road next month.

Japanese Dragons
The Elegant Strings of Japan 
The Epoch Times - Jan 12 9:10 AM
Although probably the most Westernised country in Asia, Japan is also a staunch guardian of tradition. The Japanese koto, often called a "horizontal harp", has survived virtually unchanged througho...

Japanese Samurai
Japanese embrace 'Letters' 
Minneapolis-St. Paul Star Tribune - Jan 11 12:10 PM
Hollywood's recent attempts to tell stories set in Japan have produced some odd Asian-fusion fare. "The Last Samurai" from 2003 gave us Tom Cruise as an American Civil War veteran who mastered traditional warrior skills in a matter of months and delivered an inspiring lecture to Emperor Meiji on being Japanese. More recently, "Memoirs of a Geisha" cast three of China's top actresses in lead ...

Japanese Woman
Japan awaits birdflu tests, Indonesian woman dies 
Reuters via Yahoo! News - Jan 11 10:14 PM
Japan said on Friday that it could be afflicted by its first outbreak of the lethal H5N1 bird flu strain in three years, as the disease killed an Indonesian woman and spread closer to Vietnam's largest city.

Japanese Letters
Eastwood's 'Letters': Iwo from Japanese viewpoint 
Philadelphia Daily News - Jan 12 5:49 AM
WHILE CLINT Eastwood's "Letters From Iwo Jima" is being widely hailed as the best movie of the year, I'd like to give a shout out to "Flags of Our Fathers."

Japanese Ropes
Markets (Jan 12) 
The Hindu - Jan 12 10:55 AM
WILDLIFE Learning the ropes THREE-MONTH-OLD white tiger cubs playing with their mother (in cage) at Nehru Zoological Park in Hyderabad on Friday. The cubs will be kept for public viewing next month. ...

Japanese Kimonos
Gilroy Lives on in Hearts of Japanese Visitors 
The Gilroy Dispatch - Jan 12 11:59 AM
Gilroy - The visiting high school students from Takko-machi, Japan, are preparing to take their leave of Gilroy, much sooner than they would have liked.

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Japanese Cartoon

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Here is an article on Japanese Cartoon.

Japanese Cartoon
The main cast of the anime Japanees Cartoon Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog)
Anime and Manga Portal

Anime (アニメ?) (IPA pronunciation: /ɑnime/ listen  in Japanese, but typically /ˈænɪˌme(ɪ)/ or /ˈænəˌme(ɪ)/ in English) is an abbreviation of Japanesee Cartoon the word "animation". Outside Japan, the term most popularly refers to animation originating in Japan. To the West, Japnaese Cartoon not all animation is considered anime; and anime is Jpanese Cartoon considered subset of animation.

While some anime is hand drawn, computer assisted animation techniques have become quite common in recent years. Like any entertainment medium, the story lines represent most major genres of fiction. Anime is broadcast on television, distributed on media such as DVD and VHS, and included in computer and video games. Additionally, some are produced as full length motion pictures. Anime often draws influence from Japanese manga and light novels. Some anime storylines have been adapted into live action films and television series.

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Terminology
    • 2.1 Etymology and Pronunciation
    • 2.2 The Anime Definition
    • 2.3 Syntax and morphology
    • 2.4 Synonyms
  • 3 Characteristics
    • 3.1 Genres
    • 3.2 Style
  • 4 Anime beyond Japan
    • 4.1 Early anime in the United States
    • 4.2 Current reception in the United States
    • 4.3 Commercial appeal
    • 4.4 Licensing
    • 4.5 Fansubs
    • 4.6 Influence on Western animation
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 References
  • 7 See also
    • 7.1 Online encyclopedias
    • 7.2 Terminology
    • 7.3 Licensing and translation
    • 7.4 Lists
  • 8 External links

History

Main article: History of anime
Astro Boy, star of the long-running science fiction anime series of the same name.

The history of anime begins at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques that were being explored in France, Germany, United States and Russia.

Animation became popular in Japan as it provided an alternative format of storytelling compared to the underdeveloped live-action industry in Japan. Unlike America, where live-action shows and movies have generous budgets, the live-action industry in Japan is a small market and suffered from budgeting, location, and casting restrictions. The lack of Western-looking actors, for example, made it next to impossible to shoot films set in Europe, America, or fantasy worlds that do not naturally involve Asians. The varied use of animation allowed artists to create characters and settings that did not look Japanese at all.[1]

During the 1970s, there was a surge of growth in the popularity of manga comics — which were often later animated — especially those of Osamu Tezuka, who has been called a "legend"[2] and the "god of manga".[3][4] As a result of his work and that of other pioneers in the field, anime developed characteristics and genres that are fundamental elements of the art today. The giant robot genre (known as "mecha" outside Japan), for instance, took shape under Tezuka, developed under Go Nagai and others, and was revolutionized at the end of the decade by Yoshiyuki Tomino. Robot anime like Gundam and Macross became instant classics in the 80s, and the robot genre of anime is still one of the most popular in Japan and worldwide today. In the 1980s, anime was accepted in the mainstream in Japan, and experienced a boom in production (It should be noticed that, Manga has significantly more mainstream exposure than anime in Japan). The mid-to-late '90s, on into the 2000s, saw an increased acceptance of anime in overseas markets.

Terminology

Etymology and Pronunciation

The Japanese term for animation is アニメーション (animēshon, pronounced: ɑnime:ɕoɴ), written in katakana. It is a direct transliteration and re-borrowed loanword (see gairaigo) of the English term "animation." The Japanese term is abbreviated as アニメ (anime, pronounced: ɑnime). Both the original and abbreviated forms are valid and interchangeable in Japanese, but as could be expected the abbreviated form is more commonly used.

The pronunciation of anime in English differs significantly from Japanese. The first vowel is further forward in English than Japanese: æ is more likely than ɑ. As English and Japanese stress words differently, the second vowel is likely to emerge as an unstressed schwa (ə or [[I]] in English, whereas in Japanese each syllable carries equal stress. As with a few other Japanese words such as Pokémon and Kobo Abé, anime is sometimes spelled as animé in English with an acute accent over the final e to cue the reader that the letter is pronounced as Japanese e. However, this accent does not appear in romanized Japanese, and English native speakers may produce [[eI]].

The Anime Definition

An example of the anime drawing style

Linguistically, the anime definition is subject to interpretation. In Japan, the term does not specify an animation's nation of origin or style; instead, it is used as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world.[5] In English, main dictionary sources define anime as "a Japanese style of motion-picture animation" or "a style of animation developed in Japan".[6] Thus, non-Japanese works are sometimes called anime-influenced animation if they borrow stylistically from Japanese animation.

In western countries the word is used usually only to refer to animated programming of Japanese origin, with the term "cartoon" or "animated series" used for most other visual styles. The online anime database AniDB generally defines anime (in the singular form) as "an animated, professionally produced, feature film created by a Japanese company for the Japanese market".[5] However, some anime are co-productions with non-Japanese companies like the Cartoon Network. Thus, anime is no longer specific to the Japanese market.

Syntax and morphology

Anime can be used as a common noun, "Do you watch anime?" or as a suppletive adjective, "The anime Guyver is different from the movie Guyver." It may also be used as a mass noun, as in "How much anime have you collected?" and therefore is never pluralized "animes" (nouns are never pluralized in Japanese). However, in other languages where anime has been adopted as a loan word, it is sometimes used as a count noun in singular and in plural as in Danish "Jeg tror, jeg vil se en anime" ("I think I'll watch an anime") and "Hvor mange anime'er har du nu?" ("How many animes do you have now?").

Synonyms

Anime is sometimes referred to as Japanimation, but this term has fallen into disuse. Japanimation saw the most usage during the 1970s and 1980s, which broadly comprise the first and second waves of anime fandom, and had continued use up until before the mid-1990s anime resurgence. In general, the term now only appears in nostalgic contexts. The term is much more commonly used within Japan to refer to domestic animation. Since anime or animēshon is used to describe all forms of animation, Japanimation is used to distinguish Japanese work from that of the rest of the world.

In more recent years, anime has also frequently been referred to as manga in European countries, a practice that may stem from the Japanese usage: In Japan, manga can refer to both animation and comics (although the use of manga to refer to animation is mostly restricted to non-fans). Among English speakers, manga usually has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics". An alternate explanation is that it is due to the prominence of Manga Entertainment, a distributor of anime to the US and UK markets. Because Manga Entertainment originated in the UK the use of the term is common outside of Japan. The portmanteau "animanga" has been used to collectively refer to anime and manga, though it is also a term used to describe comics produced from animation cels.

Characteristics

Dragon Ball Z (1989) is a popular shōnen anime based on original manga with 291 episodes and 13 movies.

Anime features a wide variety of artistic styles. They vary from artist to artist or by studio to studio. They are generally characterized by detailed backgrounds and stylized characters in a variety of different settings and storylines, aimed at a wide range of audiences.

Genres

Anime has many genres typically found in any mass media form. Such genres include action, adventure, children's stories, comedy, drama, erotica (hentai), medieval fantasy, occult/horror, romance, and science fiction.

Most anime includes content from several different genres, as well as a variety of thematic elements. This can make it difficult to categorize some titles by genres. A show may have a seemingly simple surface plot, but at the same time may feature a far more complex, deeper storyline and character development. It is not uncommon for an action themed anime to also involve humor, romance, and even social commentary. The same can be applied to a romance themed anime in that it may involve an action element, or in some cases brutal violence.

The following is a list of the major genres and designations that are specific to anime and manga.[7]

  • Bishōjo: Japanese for 'beautiful girl', blanket term that can be used to describe any anime that features pretty girl characters, for example Magic Knight Rayearth.
  • Bishōnen: Japanese for 'beautiful boy' blanket term that can be used to describe any anime that features "pretty" and elegant boys and men, for example Fushigi Yūgi and most CLAMP shows.
  • Ecchi: Derived from the pronunciation of the letter 'H,'the first letter of the word 'Hentai'. Japanese for 'indecent sexuality'. Contains mild sexual humor, and some fan service, for example Love Hina and He Is My Master.
  • Hentai: Japanese for 'abnormal' or 'perverted', and used by Western Audiences to refer to pornographic anime or erotica. However, in Japan the term used to refer to the same material is typically Poruno or Ero. Example: La Blue Girl, MeruPuri.
  • Josei: Japanese for 'young woman', this is anime or manga that is aimed at young women, and is one of the rarest forms. Example: NANA.
  • Kodomo: Japanese for 'child', this is anime or manga that is aimed at young children, for example Doraemon. Hello Kitty, Keropi and Panda-Z are other examples.
  • Robot/Mecha: Anime or manga featuring super robots, examples: Mobile Suit Gundam and Neon Genesis Evangelion.
  • Moé: Anime or manga featuring characters that are extremely perky or cute, for example A Little Snow Fairy Sugar and Akazukin Chacha.
  • Progressive: "Art films" or extremely stylized anime, for example Voices of a Distant Star or Byōsoku 5 Centimetre.
  • Seinen: Anime or manga targeted at teenage or young male adults, for example Oh My Goddess!, Outlaw Star and Cowboy Bebop.
  • Sentai/Super Sentai: Literally "fighting team" in Japanese, refers to any show that involves a superhero team, for example Cyborg 009.
  • Shōjo: Japanese for 'young lady' or 'little girl', refers to anime or manga targeted at girls, for example Fruits Basket, "Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi Pitch"
    • Mahō shōjo: Subgenre of shōjo known for 'Magical Girl' stories, for example Sailor Moon.
  • Shōnen: Japanese for 'boys', Shōnen is like Seinen, but refers to anime or manga targeted at younger boys, for example Dragon Ball Z or Naruto .
    • Mahō shōnen: Male equivalent of Mahō Shōjo, for example DNAngel.
  • Shōjo-ai/yuri: Japanese for 'girl-love', refers to anime or manga that focus on love and romance between female characters, for example Revolutionary Girl Utena and Kannazuki no Miko. It is often being replaced by the term "Girls Love" (GL).
  • Shōnen-ai/Yaoi: Japanese for 'boy-love', refers to anime or manga that focus on love and romance between male characters. The term "Shōnen-ai" is being phased out in Japan due to its other meaning of pederasty, and is being replaced by the term "Boys Love" (BL). An example of this style is Loveless.

Some anime titles are written for a very specific audience, even narrower than those described above. For example, Initial D, Wangan Midnight and éX-Driver concern street racing and car tuning. Ashita No Joe is about boxing. Hanaukyo Maid Team is based on the French maid fantasy.

Style

An example of FLCL's wild, exaggerated stylization.

While different titles and different artists have their own artistic styles, many stylistic elements have become so common such that they are described as being definitive of anime in general. These elements have been given names of their own. The anime drawing style can be learned, particularly with the aid of books such as How to Draw Manga. Such books come complete with information and instructions on the styles used in anime.

A common approach is the large eyes style drawn on many anime characters, credited to the influence of Osamu Tezuka, who was inspired by the exaggerated features of American cartoon characters such as Betty Boop and Mickey Mouse and from Disney's Bambi. Tezuka found that large eyes style allowed his characters to show emotions distinctly. Cultural anthropologist Matt Thorn argues that Japanese animators and audiences do not perceive such stylized eyes as inherently more or less foreign.[8] When Tezuka began drawing Ribbon no Kishi, the first manga specifically targeted at young girls, Tezuka further exaggerated the size of the characters' eyes. Indeed, through Ribbon no Kishi, Tezuka set a stylistic template that later shōjo artists tended to follow. Another variation of this style is "chibi" or "super deformed"; which usually feature huge eyes, an enlarged head, and small body.

Other stylistic elements are common as well; often in comedic anime, characters that are shocked or surprised will perform a "face fault", in which they display an extremely exaggerated expression. Angry characters may exhibit a "vein" or "stressmark" effect, where lines representing bulging veins will appear on their forehead. Angry women will sometimes summon a mallet from nowhere and strike someone with it, leading to the concept of Hammerspace. Male characters will develop a bloody nose around their female love interests (typically to indicate arousal, based on an old wives' tale).[9] Embarrassed characters will invariably produce a massive sweat-drop, which has become one of the most widely recognized stereotype motifs of anime.

The degree of stylization varies from title to title. Some titles make extensive use of common stylization: FLCL, for example, is known for its wild, exaggerated stylization. In contrast, titles such as Only Yesterday, a film by Isao Takahata, take a much more realistic approach, and feature no stylistic exaggerations.

Anime beyond Japan

Early anime in the United States

The United States saw its first exposure to anime in September of 1963, when NBC syndicated a dubbed version of the Japanese series Astro Boy. Not counting such Japanese/American co-productions as The King Kong Show and Johnny Cypher in Dimension Zero[1], only seven more anime TV series were released in the United States in the 1960s. These were 8 Man (1965), Gigantor (1966), Kimba the White Lion (1966), Prince Planet (1966), Marine Boy (1966), The Amazing 3 (1967) and Speed Racer (1967). Speed Racer would be the last anime series released in the United States until 1978 when the 1972 series Kagaku ninja tai Gatchaman was adapted for American audiences as Battle of the Planets.[10] Many anime series that made it to American television from the 1960s through the 1980s tended to be sci-fi or action-oriented, such as Star Blazers (the English dub of Space Battleship Yamato) and Robotech and Voltron (both Americanized amalgamations of unrelated anime series cobbled together into a single story).

As the 1980s wore on, more anime series and films targeted at very young children also found their way to U.S. TV screens, often on cable television channels or in syndication. Nickelodeon broadcast many mostly Canadian-made English dubs of anime films during its early years, including TV series such as Mysterious Cities of Gold, Adventures of the Little Koala, Belle and Sebastian, The Adventures of the Little Prince, Noozles, Maya the Bee, Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics, and The Littl' Bits, many of which were aired on "Nick Jr.", the network's block of programming for very young viewers. The Disney Channel broadcast both of the feature-length anime films starring Osamu Tezuka's popular unicorn character Unico, and CBN redubbed and broadcast its Bible-based anime TV series co-produced with Tatsunoko, Superbook and The Flying House. HBO also showed juvenile-targeted anime on occasion, including TV series such as Tales of Little Women, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, and Saban's Adventures of Pinocchio and feature films such as Gisaburo Sugii's 1974 Jack and the Beanstalk.

A great many anime films and feature-length TV series compilations were also released direct-to-video in the U.S., and were often available for rental at mainstream video stores. Some titles which were distributed in the U.S. in this fashion included Candy Candy, Captain Future, Angel, Serendipity the Pink Dragon, Taro the Dragon Boy, Robby the Rascal (Cybot Robotchi), and Ninja the Wonder Boy (Manga Sarutobi Sasuke).

For the most part, though, these TV series and films were not actively promoted as being of Japanese origin; in fact, many of them went so far as to remove most or all Japanese names from the credits except for credits to the animation studios. In the series themselves, character names were often changed and Japanese cultural references removed to make them more accessible to English-speaking audiences. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, this trend began to change as more openly Japanese works, such as Sailor Moon, Dragonball Z, Pokémon, Yu-Gi-Oh, and Gundam Wing, achieved mainstream popularity on American television. Although many of these shows did undergo some kind of "Americanization" in the form of character name changes and edits for violence, language, and the occasional nudity, viewers were more aware of the shows' country of origin, which might perhaps pique their curiosity to seek out other works in a similar style.

Current reception in the United States

AnimeNation’s John Oppliger had this to say on the matter:

The support for anime among American anime fans is very strong. The availability of anime in America is truly impressive, especially within the anime fan community. Awareness of Japanese animation in America is at an all time high. However, mainstream acceptance of anime in America lags far behind the advances anime has made in other respects. A close examination of the support for anime on American television may provide a revealing and realistic gauge of the actual penetration of anime into America and American culture. Anime may seem like it's tremendously successful in America because its high profile, but the facts tell another story.

According to AC Nielsen, Pixar's The Incredibles sold 16 million copies on DVD in America last year. Shark Tale sold nearly 10 million copies. Even the DVD release of Bambi sold 6 million copies in 2005. In comparison, all three Inuyasha movies combined have sold just over 1 million copies in the past year and a half. Evidently, the success of anime in America is very relative. American anime fans are very devoted. Through underground means hardcore American fans now have access to brand new Japanese anime before even many Japanese residents do. America's anime fan community is influential because it's affluent, intelligent, and motivated. But it's not very large.[11]

Despite assessments like that, and its rare and limited release in American theaters, anime's legitimacy and respect in North America has grown well enough to garner major native artistic awards such as the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature in 2002 for Spirited Away by Hayao Miyazaki. Anime has a dedicated fan following in English speaking countries, particularly active on the internet, and at conventions regularly held throughout the US and UK.

Commercial appeal

Anime has become commercially profitable in western countries as early commercially successful western adaptations of anime, such as Astro Boy, have revealed.[12] The phenomenal success of Nintendo's multi-billion dollar Pokémon franchise[13] was helped greatly by the spin-off anime series, which, first broadcast in the late 1990's, is still running worldwide to this day.

Licensing

Main article: Anime licensing

Anime is available outside of Japan in localized form. Licensed anime is modified by distributors through dubbing into the language of the country. The anime may also be edited to alter cultural references that may not be understood by a non-Japanese person and certain companies may remove what may be perceived as objectionable content. This process was far more common in the past (e.g. One Piece), when anime was largely unheard of in the west, but its use has declined in recent years because of the demand for anime in its original form. This "light touch" approach to localization has proved popular with fans as well as viewers formerly unfamiliar with anime. The popularity of such methods is evident by the success of Naruto and Cartoon Network's Adult Swim programming block, both of which employ minor edits. The "light touch" approach also applies to DVD releases as they often include both the dubbed audio and the original Japanese audio with subtitles, are typically unedited. Anime edited for television is usually released on DVD "uncut," with all scenes intact.

Anime has also been a commercial success in Asia, Europe and Latin America; where anime has become even more mainstream than in the United States, for example the Saint Seiya video game was released in Europe due to the popularity of the show even years after the series has been off-air.

Fansubs

Main article: Fansub

Although it is a violation of copyright laws in many countries, some fans watch fansubs, recordings of anime series that have been subtitled by fans. Watching subtitled Japanese versions, though not necessarily downloaded fansubs, is seen by many enthusiasts as the preferred method of watching anime. The ethical implications of producing, distributing, or watching fansubs are topics of much controversy even when fansub groups do not profit from their activities and cease distribution of their work once the series has been licensed outside of Japan.

It is also agreed by many fans that fansubs are occasionally superior to subtitles on released DVDs in US, as the subtitles are easier to read and the subtitles on the songs often include sing-along style subtitles, often with a theme associated with the show.citation needed]

Influence on Western animation

Main article: Anime-influenced animation

Some Western animation use anime methods described in anime physics. Such examples exist in Totally Spies!, The Boondocks, W.I.T.C.H. and Teen Titans. In addition, works such as Avatar: The Last Airbender featured Asian themes. While these examples are not particularly considered as anime, they are best noted for being "influenced by anime".

Notes

  1. ^ Sato, Kenji (2002). Media in Asia. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  2. ^ Ohara, Atsushi; Asahi Shimbun (May 11, 2006). 5 missing manga pieces by Osamu Tezuka found in U.S. (English). Asahi.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-29.
  3. ^ Dr. Osamu Tezuka (English). The Anime Encyclopedia. The Anime Café (2000-03-14). Retrieved on 2006-08-29.
  4. ^ Gravett, Paul (2003). Osamu Tezuka: The God of Manga. Retrieved on 2006-08-29.
  5. ^ a b AniDB Definition:Anime. AniDB. Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  6. ^ Anime Dictionary Definition. Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  7. ^ Anime News Network – Lexicon. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  8. ^ Do Manga Characters Look "White"?. Retrieved on 11 December, 2005.
  9. ^ The concept of a bloody nose is supposedly due to blood rushing to the face in an exaggerated blush. Sometimes the character will even be propelled up into the air by a fountain of blood. (See Nosebleeds in fiction.)
  10. ^ Patten, Fred; editor John A. Lent (2001). "Anime in the United States" in Animation in Asia and the Pacific. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34035-7. 
  11. ^ Oppliger, John (2006-01-13). Why Does Anime Have So Little Exposure on American TV?. Ask John. AnimeNation News. Retrieved on 2006-09-05.
  12. ^ Progress Against the Law: Fan Distribution, Copyright, and the Explosive Growth of Japanese Animation. Retrieved on 1 May, 2006.
  13. ^ "Pokemon (sic) Franchise Approaches 150 Million Games Sold", PR Newswire, 2005-10-04. Retrieved on 2006-09-16.

References

  • Clements, Jonathan; McCarthy, Helen (2001). The Anime Encyclopedia. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 1-880656-64-7. 
  • Napier, Susan J. (2001). Anime: From Akira to Princess Mononoke. New York: Palgrave. ISBN 0-312-23862-2. 
  • Poitras, Gilles (1998). Anime Companion. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 1-880656-32-9. 
  • Poitras, Gilles (2000). Anime Essentials. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 1-880656-53-1. 
  • Baricordi, Andrea; Pelletier, Claude (2000). Anime: A Guide to Japanese Animation (1958–1988). Montreal, Canada: Protoculture. ISBN 2-9805759-0-9. 
  • Schodt, Frederik L. (1996). Dreamland Japan, Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. 

See also

  • Animated cartoon
  • Animation
  • Anime game
  • Anime industry
  • Anime-influenced animation
  • Cartoon physics
  • Cartoon
  • Hammerspace
  • Kaoani
  • Manga
  • Traditional animation
  • Late night anime

Online encyclopedias

  • AnimeNfo
  • Anime News Network
  • Enciclopedia Anime (In Spanish)

Terminology

  • Anime Music Video – Often Abbreviated as AMV
  • Catgirl – A human girl usually depicted with cat ears and a tail
  • Chibi – Drawing in "Super Deformed" style, where the head and body are severely out of proportion.
  • Cosplay – Dressing up in a costume of a fictional character
  • Dōjinshi or Doujinshi – Fan made manga based upon a preexisting series.
  • Fanfic A story written by Fans based on preexisting plots and or casts.
  • Lemons and Limes A notation on Fan fiction to warn readers of potentially explicit content.
  • Japanese television dramas
  • Eroge
  • EroGuro
  • Hentai – Anime involving sexually explicit or pornographic content
  • J-pop – Japanese pop music
  • Lolicon – Anime involving sexual depictions of young girls
  • Otaku – An obsessed collector, usually collecting manga/anime
  • OVA – Original Video Animation, anime released direct-to-video
  • ONA – Original Net Animation, an anime released on the net first(Very rare)
  • Seiyū – Japanese voice actors and actresses
  • Shota – Anime involving sexual depictions of young boys
  • Yuri – Anime involving a girl-girl relationship
  • Yaoi – Anime involving a boy-boy relationship

Licensing and translation

  • Anime licensing
  • Editing of anime in American distribution
  • Fansub
  • Glossary:Japanese film credit terms

Lists

  • List of anime by Year
1910s, 1940s, 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s
2000s
  • List of anime by Type
Series, Films, OVAs
  • Other
Anime Companies
Conventions
Anime theatrically released in America
Notable names in anime (directors, creators, and so forth)

External links

Look up anime in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Anime
  • Anime News Network - Anime news and database website
  • AnimeNfo - Anime database, reviews, and community forums.
  • AniDB - Database of anime series, hashes, fansub groups, and 'mylist' feature.

Search Term: "Anime"

 

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